G.V. Pozdnjak, A.N. Krajukhin, G.F. Kravchenko

PKO “Cartography”


The volume 2 “The Nature. Ecology” is a component of the National Atlas of  Russia created as the official state edition according to the assignment of the Russian Federation  Government. The volume is intended for wide use in economic, administrative, scientific, educational and other kinds of activity. The objects of mapping in the volume are environment, natural resources and the environmental condition of the Russian Federation. The volume contains 495 pages of maps, written and illustrative material which are grouped in 15 sections: Introduction section; Evolution of the environment; Geological structure and subsoil resources; Relief; Climate; Land water; Snow, Ice, Permafrost; Seas; Soil cover and Land resources; Vegetation; Fauna; Landscapes; Condition of the environment; Reference section.

The Introduction section contains cartographical and written material reflecting general characteristics of the Russian Federation environment and natural resources .

The section “Evolution of the natural environment” is devoted to a theme of the geographical environment evolution in territory of Russia with climatic and hydro meteorological characteristics, and also to reflection of fauna and vegetation development features for the last 150 thousand years.

The information on the geological structure of territory of Russia, hydro-geological and engineering-geological conditions, on accommodation of  basic kind minerals is presented in the cartographic form in the section “Geological structure and subsoil resources”. A number of maps are devoted to a protection theme for the geological environment and distribution of unique geological objects.

The maps describing a geomorphologic structure and zoning of Russia territory, reflecting the general orography and relief hypsometry, and also relief forming processes are presented in the section “Relief”.

The section “Climate” consists of maps set and schemes reflecting spatial distribution of climatic characteristics over the Russia territory.

The section “Land water” contains the maps and charts displaying a hydrographical network, catchment’s basins with allocation  of surface and underground waters resources.

The sectionSnow. Ice. Permafrost” is devoted to glaciological and cryopedological conditions and snow – ice resources. The resulted data on a modern glaciations and a long-term Permafrost development, on dangerous snow – ice resources is given there.

The information in the section “Sea” is presented physical, chemical and hydrological characteristics of the seas surrounding the territory of Russia. The theme of bio resources of seas is revealed by means of maps on the phytoplankton, benthos, animal plankton, trade seaweed, sea animals, and fish distribution. The information on ecological condition of sea waters and sea coasts is presented there.

The section “Vegetation” includes set of maps reflecting features of the modern vegetative cover. The special attention is given to resources of a vegetative cover.

The information in the section “Fauna” is resulted on specific variety of ground and water animals (mammals, fishes, amphibians and reptiles) and also birds.

The section “Landscapes” is presented by maps and the space pictures displaying modern variety of landscapes with reflection of landscape structures and with materials about their seasonal rhythms and hydrothermal seasonal phases. Maps of physiographic zoning and maps of the population natural condition of life are included in the section.

The section “Environment condition” is devoted to a theme of ecological conditions formation in Russia and includes map material about various kinds of anthropogenous influence on the nature, influences of various industries (power, mining, processing, transport, agriculture, forest exploitation).

Maps of the environment protection and optimization of wildlife management are included in the section “Wildlife management”. The more detailed information is presented in the section about especially protected natural territories of the international, federal and regional levels. The maps devoted to nature protection system and participation of Russia in the international nature protection conventions and agreements have great value.

The final “Reference section” includes the dictionary of terms and the sources of the information (literary, cartographic, and statistical).