RUSSIAN PRINTED MAP OF THE 18TH CENTURY
S.V. Sviridenko1, T.M. Petrova2
1 - National Library of
Conserved collection of Russian printed maps allows us to distinguish the main directions of mapping traditional for the 18th century:
§ General maps of the Russian Empire;
§ Maps of administrative‑territorial districts (governments, provinces, regions ruled by governor‑generals, uyezds), individual territorial formations, and natural areas;
§ Maps intended for educational purposes;
§ Post maps;
§ Confessional maps;
§ Maps of sea water areas;
§ River maps;
§ Maps of boundary territories;
§ Maps of territorial acquisitions;
Maps of geographical
discoveries (mainly attached to the northern part of the
§ Maps of individual settlements;
§ Maps of military campaigns;
§ Maps of the reigning persons' travels.
Dual nature of the engraved maps of the 18th century (research‑and‑reference maps and simultaneously works of art) determines the following directions of their analysis and use:
§ Historical and cartographical investigations: mathematical elements, contents development, succession of cartographical image of the territories of the same name, use of multiple languages in the publications, availability of republications including foreign ones, creation of serial works, gradual formation of reference matter (explanatory inscriptions on cartographical image, indices, isolated instances of legend use), and text insertions.
§ Reference information: The change of state boundaries, the dynamics of administrative structure of state territory, settlement system, localization of mass (monasteries, factories, and others) and unique (burial places of historic figures, expeditionary depots («magazines»), etc.) objects.
§ Reconstruction of historical visage of the landscape at the regional‑studies works: Changes in the administrative ownership of territories, toponymy.
§ Military‑and‑historical investigations: Localized battlefields, force disposition and movement, names of regiments and ships taking part in the battle, commanders' names, characteristic of war casualty and trophies, etc.
§ Narrative and artistic cartouches, pictures, allegories, mottos used in map design and turning them into an element of political and artistic culture of the 18th century.
§ Personnel: Map authors and engravers.
§ Map and society: Map in the popular science publications, cartographical bibliography, cartographical collecting, map of the 18th century in modern library and museum collections.
The effective realization of implied multidimensional analysis and use of cartographical sources suppose the repeated use of them, joint and in a determinate cases concurrent map browsing, and remote access to the collections for the most of readers. Traditional electronic library restricting itself to the reproduction of cartographical image does not allow us to solve all the set problems. Certain adaptation of a reader to the work with the materials of the 18th century is necessary as well, since administrative frontiers which do not correspond to the modern ones, the presence of many maps which are not attached to administrative‑territorial districts, inch scale, the lack of legends, and the use of conventional signs which are out of use hamper both picking out the conserved maps for the specified territory and immediate work with those maps.
Electronic library should be supplied with database, in order to overcome the noted difficulties and to ensure valuable work with the cartographical materials of the 18th century. Its structure and query system are developed in conformity with the individual kinds of maps of that century.