K.B. Shingareva1, E.V. Cherepanova2, I.P. Karachevtseva3

1 - Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography, Moscow, Russia

2 - AEROCOSMOS, GIS, Moscow, Russia

3 - The Institute of Informatics Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences (IPI RAN)



It is possible to substantiate three periods in cartography of extraterrestrial territories, namely pre-space, modern and the newest one. Pre-space period (XVI - the middle of XX century) includes drawing up of maps on the base of ground observations (visual, visual and photographic telescopic, in various spectral bands). In the modern period (60-s' - the beginning of 90-s' years of XX century) three main directions could be named. One of them is represented by the maps created as a result of the analysis, generalization and specification of the data about the bodies of the Solar system received by principal observatories of the world. Another direction is closely connected with the development of the radar-location methods. It has allowed to carry out corresponding observations of Mercury and Venus. In parallel with this work from the end of 60-s' years a third direction began, namely drawing up of maps on data of the space surveying executed by flyby bodies, at flight (even with return to the Earth), and finally, from an orbit of the artificial satellite and from a surface of a body after soft landing to its surface. Images of photographic, phototelevision and television surveying were transferred to the Earth where they were processed with methods of analytical photogrammetry, demanded updating in connection with surveying conditions and opportunities. The newest period (90th years of XX century - the beginning of XXI century) is remarkable for increasing potential opportunities of mapping due to development of computer technologies, digital mapping, three-dimensional surface modeling, Internet, and also the progress of space techniques and intensity of flights. After remarkable recession connected with the end of the Apollo program the beginning of XXI century a lot of space exploration projects (flights to Mars, Permanent Base on the Moon, etc.) have been officially announced. It is simultaneously a period of extraterrestrial geography evolution. Remote sensing data play crucial role in extraterrestrial territories mapping issues. Methods developed for processing of Earth images and Earth mapping have been successfully adapted to extraterrestrial territories researches, but tremendous data flow and specific characteristics of bodies require new approaches to information processing. On the basis of the conducted analysis of the present map materials, including data systematization on particular parameters and separate bodies, some conclusions  and development perspectives were formulated. The extraterrestrial mapping problems first of all face the corresponding commissions and working groups of such international organizations, as ISPRS and ICA. Coordination of these groups efforts is necessary for the successful decision of problems.