THE PROJECT OF THE SPECIALIZED TOPOGRAPHIC MAP FOR HYDROECOLOGIC PURPOSES
Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography
Now learning and mapping of water resources transforms to very actual problem in connection with growth of the anthropogenic effects which are causing changes in water relationships of the rivers, lakes, transformation of connatural waters, changes of an ecological state of water objects - often on unpredictable directions. At the same time annual growth of a water consumption volume and requirements to quality of water is marked.
Cartographical providing was always one of conditions of rational usage and the count of natural resources and a state of water objects. The published hydroecological maps have the scientific basis, differ depth of the contents, optimization of legends, but are compiled, as a rule, in small scales and represent the common hydroecological picture at a level of enough large areas or in scale of all country. Now the maps giving more detailed information and with more exact spatial fixation of the facts are actual. Specialized topographical maps of new type or maps for hydroecological proposes could respond this requirement. The specialized maps developed within the limits of the river basins concept, considering both connatural processes, and anthropogenic influences on catch water basins, on our opinion, will be optimal.
The state topographical maps are the important source of the hydroecological information. They surpass on accuracy many other maps and allow receiving metric characteristics of water objects. Specialized topographical maps are created on the basis of universal ones, within the limits of their accuracy, and are characterized by addition of the contents or its directed unloading for particular branch of a national economy. Production of specialized maps is economically effectively and justified only at their compilation in a unified work cycle with universal maps.
The topographical maps assume equal value of mapped objects and the phenomena. On the maps of hydroecological proposes water objects and their characteristics should be shown in more detail.
A type and a project of specialized topographical maps of hydroecological proposes is presented in our researches. The offered contents of maps represents a data system on the water objects, envisioning characteristic of their genetical features, morphological, dynamic features. Designations of connatural objects are grouped on sections: water relationships and dynamics of the rivers, lakes; morphology and dynamics of coast; relief of a shore band; quality of water. Hydraulic engineering facilities and objects of water supply are separately characterized: water basins, their sorts and characteristics; canals (land-reclamation, navigable) and their characteristics; water pipes; hydraulic engineering facilities on water basins, rivers, canals. The special section is devoted to hydroecological dangers, objects of anthropogenic effect on water objects. The special attention is given to hydrological monuments and nature phenomena. Legend and samples of offered type maps are illustrated in the report.