MAPPING METHODS OF REPRESENTING EXTREME PROCESSES

A. Koshkarev1, A. Kozlova1, E. Likhacheva1, G. Lokshin1, D. Markelov2, D. Timofeev1, I. Chesnokova3

1 - Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

2 - GUP MosNPO Radon, Moscow, Russia

3 - Institute of Aquatic Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

akoshkarev@yandex.ru

 

Thematic mapping of possible danger and risks stemmed from extreme natural and natural man-caused processes is considered by the authors as a tool for assessing natural conditions on the territory under study. In 2000-2005, within the framework of the Project Regional Aspects of Russia Development Under Conditions of Global Changes in the Environment and Climate, researchers from the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, together with specialists from other institutions compiled and published (DMB, Ltd) two maps in the scale of 1 : 9,000,000.

The first map Ecological and Geomorphological Situations in Subjects of the Russian Federation comprises the integral assessment of exodynamic conditions. The map shows boundaries of most probable damage zones impaired by cryogenic and seismic processes, data of economic losses inflicted by widespread processes (erosion, freezing, underflooding).

The second map Zoning of the Russian Territory by the Extreme Range of Development of Ecological and Geomorphological Situations illustrates the detailed assessment of erosion risk on the basis of data on the relief ruggedness, development of freezing processes within zones of continuous and intermittent permafrost, as well as extreme man-caused processes. Such a combination of conditions allows carrying out the territory zonation, which the authors depicted in small scale map insets. The first inset, Processes determining the possibility of extreme ecological-geomorphological situations, illustrates the complex of natural, natural-anthropogenic and anthropogenic factors determining the present-day and future development of extreme situations. The second inset, Possible changes in ecological-geomorphological situations during global warming, demonstrates possible changes in the trend of exogenous processes during global climate warming, which are based on the results of global climate modelling and empirical expert evaluation.

GIS-based mapping approaches involve digitizing and vectorization of source paper maps, spatial modelling, and the analysis of multi-layered digital datasets by means of ArcInfo and ArcGIS (ESRI, Inc., USA), data visualization in the form of on-screen maps, and the final graphical operations for map publishing. Thereby, a parallel co-existence of maps is provided in the traditional analogous, digital, and electronically networked environments (for instance, via web map servers) that extends the circle of their users and applicability, including a further assessment of risks in the course of investment activity, research and educational efforts.