USING OF GIS APPROACH IN THE REALIZATION OF BASIC PRINCIPLE IN resource management
I. Kovalchuk, Ye. Ivanov, Ju. Andreychuk
The basic principle of natural resource management attracts a considerable attention. This is affirmed by adopted laws and normative acts, among which EU Water Framework Directive plays a considerable part.
The question arises as to how the basin principle of land management is connected with GIS. The answer to these lays in GIS integrative function, which secures a comprehensive reflection of spatial-temporal peculiarities of basin geosystems of different ranks, and topological relations between them and their elements. Such an understanding is required for the substantiation, introduction and the effective applying of actions, directed to the securing of favorable ecological situation.
The formulated tasks were solved on the example of the small basin of the Koropets river with area of over 512 km2. Sparing a detailed characterization of the natural conditions, it could be noted that this area is relatively homogenous and could be taken as an etalon area for the part of Podill’a high plain in the Dnister river basin. The seeming homogeneity confers an additional acuity to the research, as it requires strict and well-founded distinguishing of the borders between relatively homogenous parts of the basin. The research is based on using thematic maps, statistical data, field and remote sensing data.
For the performing of analysis, the large-scale basin GIS was build, containing the information on the components of natural environment (like geologic structure, relief, soils, hydrography, land use, socioeconomic indexes, etc.) in its database, which is constantly updated and renewed.
As a result of the work, the digital map of integral geoecologic regionalization of the Koropets basin geosystem was constructed. The main principles of the regions distinction were basin-morphological, consisting of delineating the areas, homogenous by morphologic and morphometric relief characteristics, and geocomponent, the idea of which laid in the assessment of the ecological state of soils, surface waters, and vegetation cover, and also the anthropogenic factors influencing these. Thus, 14 microregions were delineated, any of which contains a specific combination of morphologic (morphometric) indexes (absolute elevation, aspect, slope, horizontal cutting), and the indexes of geoecological state of landscape components (the susceptibility to erosion processes, chemical pollution, technogenic load, etc.). The map of regions is used as a basis for the planning and practical application of the system of soil- and water protection measures.