THE EARTH REMOTE SENSING AND GEOINFORMATION MAPPING BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR CREATING THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION GEOINFORMATION SPACE
FGUP State Centre «PRIRODA»
Space data infrastructure development is the necessary link in perfecting information provision of the Russian Federation territorial administration at present. The infrastructure of spatial data represents the constructive basis of the Russian Federation unified geoinformational space, a base (consolidating) unit of nation-wide informational resources. Urgency, reliability, accuracy and universality are the major demands made spatial information by administrative bodies. Production in an electronic mode of the spacial documentation possessing the above set properties is possible exclusively by means of remote space sensing and GIS - technologies.
Efficiency and quality increase of up-dating the digital topographical basis is the important component of the space data infrastructure. Now the organizations and firms of Geodesy and Cartography Federal Agency conduct wide scale activities on creation and up-dating of digital topographic maps at scale 1: 100 000 on territory of the Russian Federation. For the first time the managing subjects, fundamental and applied science get at their disposal the access to the high-power informational resources generated with application of strict regulated requirements.
However the state territorial control is linked to application of the renovated topographical basis to the solution of the complex of problems: optimization of usage land (and other natural) resources, the supervisory control of environmental contamination, well-timed detection of natural and technogenic dangers and so on. The solution of these tasks is impossible without the profound interbranch data processing of the Earth remote sensing and creation of specialized intelligence systems on the basis of GIS - technologies.
Now the advanced foreign countries for the problem solution of territories steady balanced development guide active development and practical implementation of global geoinformational mapping projects (projects of the Digital Earth), oriented on creation and maintenance systems of electronic maps at a level of a modernity by means of processing detailed space data continuous flow.
The prototype of the Digital Earth projects is the program of complex learning and mapping of country natural resources unexampled in the world and for the first time executed by firm «State Centre "PRIRODA”» in 70-90 years of the last century. During the complex cartographic activities which are conducted in scales of topographic maps 1: 500 000 - 1: 200 000 with usage of the space information, the regional series of universal value maps for various spheres of economy have been created, the bases of a complex cadastre of natural resources, ecological mapping and monitoring of the environment were incorporated, the hands-on experience of effective interbranch interaction was stored.
One of the major components of the further perfecting an information provision-cartographic of territorial control in the Russian Federation consists in creation of the space data infrastructure, and multi-threaded development of the state universal geoinformational mapping basis. The environment space monitoring modern technologies and universal geoinformational mapping of Russian Federation subjects natural-economic systems provide creation of country complete geoinformational space. In that way only it is possible to create effective interbranch system of space data in interests of the government balanced development of the Russian Federation locales.
The important role in technology of universal geoinformational mapping should be played the development of interactive methods for space pictures decoding, definition of an optimal structure for each locale and the contents of electronic base maps, development of regional universal classifiers of the geographical information. A priority problem is standardization and unification of means, methods and geoinformational technologies with a view of information provision-cartographic provision of the solution processes for territorial forecasting and control standard tasks.