THE MAJOR PROBLEMS OF GEOINFORMATICS AND CARTOGRAPHY
I.A. Sokolov1, V.N. Filatov2, N.I. Konon2, A.I. Martynenko1
1 - IPI THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE
2 - TS VS
A number of geoinformatics actual problems are considered: building of the Knowledge Base about the Earth, multilevel base of spatial data, geoinformational simulation of terrains, a geoinformational securing of terrestrial and air navigating, geoinformational education. Geodesy and Cartography Federal Agency, the Topographical Service of Russian Federation Armed Forces are directed on the solution of these problem efforts.
Combination of geoinformational technologies for the Knowledge Base building about our planet and country is proved. It is necessary for science, economy, social sphere and defense development. Knowledge of the processes existent in the Earth core, mantle, crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere, are integrated on the basis of electronic map System. A mainstream is multi-dimensional existential simulation and mapping of situations and places with usage of electronic maps and space maps.
Specific features of electronic marine cartography, the main of which is necessity of the sea-bottom relief and marine water column description are considered. It leads to necessity of special algorithm usage for their description, frames of the information storage and methods of its search. Approaches to the solution of the electronic marine cartography primary goals are assumed.
Approaches to integration of the space information on the basis of cartographical representation in different scales and with usage of multilevel base of space data are described. The list of the software products is resulted, enabling to form complicated intellectual systems, among others, on the basis of the above-stated conceptual approach affiliation. The procedure of the space information integration on example of development problem-oriented GIS experience is stated, paths of its up-dating, refinement and replenishment optimization processes are represented.
Requirements to geoinformational models of terrain are formulated. The basis of geoinformational simulation is the informational and analytical bank of geographical knowledge constructed on three-dimensional models and electronic maps. Relief simulation methods and analytical processing with usage of the hardware-software complex for the Internet-mapping allow to construct the optimal map of the Earth surface and to use the geospatial information about lithosphere. Requirements, principles and methodology of building three-dimensional models of terrain are stated. Usages of space simulation of terrain is considered.
The System of electronic maps as data ware for GIS is considered. Electronic aviation maps entering in this system provide air navigation problem solving. Priority directions of GIS application in terraneous, air, marine and space navigation are formulated.
The contents of courses on problems of global mapping and geoinformation technologies are described.