USE OF GEOINFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN CARTOGRAPHIC
PRODUCTION (FROM THE EXPERINCE OF HIGH TECHNOLOGIES INSTITUTE,
To the middle of 90th of the last century there
were not any cartographic enterprises which activity would lean on a new
technical and technological base in
In the Institute of High Technologies (IPT) there were conducted researches on scientific bases development of computer cartography, experimentally-practical introduction of geoinformation technologies in a new cartographic manufacture and practical works on manufacturing the various cartographic production to be necessary in different spheres: industrial (economic) and non-productive (educational, recreational, etc.).
Statement of the problem. To investigate stages of modern cartographic
production development on the basis of geoinformation technologies in
The first stage is the definition of the most comprehensible software for cartographic works, its development and introduction in the process of maps compiling in any scales and contents.
The second stage is mastering and development of computer cartography methods. The following problems were solved in this connection:
· The data processing on separate layers was approved, each of which corresponds to elements of a geographical basis of thematic maps (hydrography, boundaries, borders of administrative-territorial division, settlements, etc.) and to complex of attributive data of any object systems.
Mastering by products of digital cartography
has occurred by use of already created digital maps of various scales at
· One of the most complicated questions was the decision of mathematic and cartographic problems of cartographic projections construction directly in the electronic environment, transformation of different projections to others, transformations of basic elements of the image (for example, a coastal line of continents, islands, etc.) in connection with transformation from one projection to another, a choice of the central meridian for the territory which is a subject to mapping.
The third stage is development of three-dimensional (3D) mapping technologies and construction of a relief in the electronic environment, its display by means of light and shade treatment plastics which answers to precomputer cartography concept of “shading a relief”.
The fourth stage is c reation of electronic atlases technologies which have opened a way to the edition of series of educational atlases on geography and history on compact discs (CD-R). The electronic environment provided fulfillment of movement commands on the atlas "forward" and "back"; blowing up in scale of separate fragments of a map, bringing of a map and the additional information (texts, schedules and diagrams) on the screen.
The fifth stage is connected with new technological development and the received results in directions of globe production and uses of space images for compiling of computer spacephotomaps. Digital technologies application in processing the cartographic image for globes, as well as for other cartographic production, provides its high graphic quality and accuracy.
Conclusions. Introduction of geoinformation technologies in
cartographic production which has been developed and realized in