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Kira B. Shingareva (1938–2013)

Kira B. Shingareva (Photo by Henrik Hargitai)

Kira B. Shingareva (Photo by Henrik Hargitai)

We are very sad to inform you, that our colleague Kira B. Shingareva passed away on Sunday, 15 September 2013.

The following text was taken from the book “Map Worlds: A History of Women in Cartography” by Will C. van den Hoonaard (Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2013, pp. 149–151):

Kira B. Shingareva, professor at Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography was Principal Scientist at the Planetary Cartography Laboratory and the Laboratory of Comparative Planetology at the Institute of Space Researches at the Academy of Science. She was one of the most eminent cartographers of extra-terrestrial bodies and was among the first people to succeed in mapping the “dark” (reverse) side of the Moon. She headed the Commission on Planetary Cartography of the International Association of Cartography.

Shingareva was born in 1938 in Russia. Her mother died when she was five years old. Her father was a chemical engineer. It was her father who suggested, at a critical point in her studies, that she should study mathematics in the university’s astronomical curriculum. She admitted that “she is forever grateful to him for that, loving him dearly.”

She studied in Dresden, Germany where she graduated from the Technical University in 1961 (at the age of 23), obtained a PhD in 1974, and a Dr of Science in 1992. Before then, she had gone to the University of Moscow. She wanted to become a mathematician and to study the theory of mathematics. During the exams she did not have enough points to be allowed to continue with mathematics (she just missed it by 1 point). As a consequence, she went to another university which included mathematics in the astronomical curriculum.

After having returned to Moscow from Dresden in 1962, she connected with a friend who was heading the Moon project, and he asked her to work for him at the Laboratory of Comparative Planetology at the Institute of Space Researches under the aegis of the Academy of Science. In October 1959, the Soviet Luna 3 had already succeeded in photographing the Moon’s far side. Three years after her arrival at the Institute, then at the University, she participated, in 1965, in the National Space program and mapped the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and Venus. As a 27-year-old, she was very excited to work on the project. Her main task was to select the landing sites for the moon probes. On 3 February 1966, Luna 9 was able to safely land on the Moon (the first-ever to do so) and take surface close-up images in the Oceanus Procellarum; Luna 13 was able to follow up on these images on 24 December in the same year (Williams, 2005: 2,3).

A turning point early in her career was the 1967 Congress of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) where she presented, for the first time, the nomenclature of the reverse side of the Moon. She was then only 29 years old. The Soviet presentation of Atlas Obratnoi Storony Luny, Ghast 2, 1967 (Atlas of the Far Side of the Moon, Part 2) at the Union failed on several accounts. Shingareva claimed, “the images were of bad quality and there were mistakes.” Ewen A. Whitaker (1999: 176), who was closely involved with the proceedings, noted that the map and a list of new names seemed like a fait accompli. Moreover, some 45% of the names were Russian. In any case, when the USSR delegation presented their nomenclature of the Moon, they faced opposition from the United States National Committee on Lunar Mapping and Nomenclature. It suggested that only numbers should be assigned to the 450 features on the reverse side of the Moon and that “we should be very conservative in assigning names,” and “use names of permanent renown” (Commission de la Lune, 1967: 104).

According to a participant in the tri-annual meetings of the IAU congresses in the 1960s, the controversy started a year earlier, in 1966, when Dr. A. Mikhailov of the USSR Academy of Science sent a letter to Dr. D. Menzel, President of the Lunar nomenclature Commission. Dr. Mikhailov suggested that “names of poets, painters, composers, etc. be used to identify the newly imaged craters on the Zond 3 photos” (Letter from Ewen A. Whitaker to W.C. van den Hoonaard, 28 March 2011). Later that year, the USSR published a list of 153 new names, of which some 66 were Russian, by-passing the rules of the IAU Lunar Nomenclature Committee.

When she presented her map, it became evident that the standards that applied to the near side of the Moon, could not apply to the far side. The near side showed the south pole on top of the map; the far side would show it at the bottom of the map. And where would “east” and “west” be (Whitaker, 1999: 173)? The United States scientists already had much information from their own lunar orbital photographic missions (1966–1967) involving 600,000 high-resolution images (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2010), but the Soviets wanted her to select craters and name them. The scientists from Europe agreed with the approach taken by the Russian delegation.

After Shingareva had returned to Moscow, a United States colleague sent her a map with a small crater named “Kira” in recognition of her remarkable achievements. She always had that map on her wall. All of her grandchildren know about the Kira crater. She fondly recounts the story of a 102-year-old Russian lunar scientist, naming something after him and believing that he was dead. Soon, she received a letter from him, saying, “I’m very much alive!”  It is the International Commission of Nomenclature of the IAU that then ruled that one could now name craters after people who are over 100 years old! Shingareva was busy for 10 years at the USSR Academy of Sciences, participating in the Moon Exploration Project until 1977.

Kira B. Shingareva receiving an ICA award in 2007

Kira B. Shingareva receiving the ICA Honorary Fellowship in 2007

More than 150 publications to her name, including “Atlas of Terrestrial Planets and their Moons” and “Space Activity in Russia – Background, Current State, Perspectives” (Karachevtseva et al., 2003), she was appointed as co-chairman of ICA Planetary Cartography Working Group, 1995–1999, Chair of the ICA Planetary Cartography Commission, 1999–2003, and, according to the Proceedings of the International Cartographic Conference, “managed such projects as a series of multilingual maps of planets and their moons, glossary on planetary cartography, and specialized map-oriented DB on planetary cartography in the frames of commission activity” (Shingareva, Karachevtseva, and Cherepanova, 2007). On the initiative of the Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK), several groups in Europe involving Shingareva were working on a Multilingual Planetary Map Series (Hargitai, 2004:150).

More recently, Shingareva has been trying to bring her graduate students to more earth-bound projects such as bringing her experience to bear, in 2006, on finding solutions related to the Moscow Megacity Road and Transport Complex (Sinitsyna and Shingareva, 2006).

Shingareva is well recognized. She was elected Honorary Fellow of the International Cartographic Association (ICA Newsletter, Dec. 2007: 5).

Please also read In Memoriam Kira B. Shingareva by her colleagues from the Commission on Planetary Cartography.

Extraterrestrial lab supporting Russian space program

Report from the 2012 Moscow meeting of the ICA Commission on Planetary Cartography

Evgeniia Gusakova explaining the DTM of the Lunokhod-1 landing site visualized in ArcScene; Ludmila Shishkina working on a Lunar photomosaic in ISIS (in the back).

Training on how to use command line ISIS, one of the using software in planetary cartography and image processing.

Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK) is the oldest of Russian Universities (since 1779) that now has 8500 students and a staff of over 600. In 2010 the university created a new Laboratory for space research named as MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Lab (MExLab) where cartographic support for future Russian planetary missions is provided.

Students studying at this lab are devoted planetary cartographers. “We came here because this way we can support our future space missions; and we can also work on past missions’ datasets that had not been processed or analyzed; however, many of the data recorded on magnetic tapes are lost by now. And there is always something new in space” – say Ludmila Shishkina and Natalia Kozlova, who work at MExLab. The activities are carried out in four groups: Cartography and mapping; Multispectral image processing; Photogrammetry; and Geodesy and Navigation.

The MExLab was established from a mega-scale three-year grant from the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation called “Measures to attract leading scientists to Russian Educational Institutions”. The winning joint proposal by Jürgen Oberst (DLR) and Kira Shingareva (MIIGAiK) was selected from 500 proposals in 2010. The subject of the proposal was “to develop infrastructure and capability for MIIGAIK to take a significant role in planning, execution and analysis of data from Russian planetary missions” and also to develop “job opportunities to attract young scientists and students to pursue careers in geodesy, cartography and planetary science”. “This is very important”, explains Kira Shingareva, leader of planetary cartographic activities at MIIGAiK, “because after the perestroyka, planetary cartography was not at all attractive to students. They went to other companies who could pay them. This is why there is a large gap between the old generation and the new one: there are no middle-aged experts. The consequences are even worst in the space industry, where the lack of expertise may lead to rocket failures”.

Now there are about 50 scientists, including about 30 young, PhD students and half last-year students working at MExLab. “When they get diploma, they can join the Russian space program and help it to get back on its feet” – says Jürgen Oberst, who is the scientific leader of the project and head of the MExLab Photogrammetry group. However, if everything fails, these students will still be able to find a job, since they are very well educated in terrestrial geodesy and cartography. But the head of MExLab, Vasiliy Malinnikov believes that the Russian Federation will support future space research works and young scientists could continue their studies.

They participate in diverse projects which they presented at the meeting of the ICA Commission on Planetary Cartography held at MIIGAiK: Alexander Lojkin is working on Enceladus limb profiles; Natalia Kozlova creates DTMs of Soviet landing sites on the Moon while Marina Baskakova is producing the maps of these sites; Maxim Andreev and Anton Bystrov are creating image processing support the selection of Luna Glob landing sites for which Alexander Kokhanov is creating topographic maps in GIS, Alexander Zharov and his brother Oleg Zharov are hard working on producing a control network  of more than 100 thousand manually selected control points for the 3D modelling of Phobos, Vasily Dmitriev is modeling  martian meteoroid streams, Bulgn Mukabenova and Svetlana Afanasyeva are making crater statistics for the Phobos, Maria and Ekaterina Karpunkina are making crater statistics for the Moon, Evgeniia Gusakova is working on Lunokhod-1,2  landing site maps, just to name a few of the ongoing projects at MExLab, three years after its foundation. The students are making an incredible job here, which is also a result of the tireless work of the all scientists the lab, says Irina Karachevtseva, who is the head of the Cartography Group of MExLab. Post doc scientists Dmitry and Denis Uchaev study gravity fields of Phobos and Deimos using fractal modeling approach. Irina Nadejdina and Anatoliy Zubarev are leading young scientists of Geodesy Group who investigate Io, Ganymede, Enceladus, Ida and the Moon. They make photogrammetry image processing using Photomod software (produced by Russian developers) and teach students to create DEMs and orthomosaics of these bodies, including cartographic support of future Russian missions to the Polar area of Moon (Luna-Globe and Luna-Resource). All scientists hope that there will be a future Russian mission to Phobos, one of the Martian satellites, and they work on it.

Group photo of the scientists and students, who participated in the commission meeting at MIIGAiK.

Honorary Fellowship for Kira B. Shingareva

Kira B. Shingareva is professor at the Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography. She graduated from the Dresden Technical University at 1961 and received her Ph.D in 1974, and became Doctor of Science in 1992. She has hold positions as principal scientist at the Planetary Cartography Laboratory and at the Laboratory of Comparative Planetology at the Institute of Space Researches at the Academy of Science.

At the University she participated in the National Space program by mapping the Moon, Mars, Phobos and Venus. She is an author of more than 150 publications, among them “Atlas of Terrestrial Planets and their Moons” and “Space Activity in Russia – Background, Current State, Perspectives”.

Since 1995 Professor Shingareva has been active in the ICA. She has been co-chairman of the ICA Planetary Cartography Working Group 1995-1999 and chairman of ICA Planetary Cartography Commission for two consecutive terms, 1999-2007. Among the achievements of her ICA activities we find “Series of multilingual maps of planets and their moons”, “Glossary on planetary cartography” and “Specialised map-oriented Databases on planetary cartography”.

Kira Shingareva has served ICA in an exemplary way. In spite of limited resources she has organised and documented several commissions meeting, and always reported the activities of her commission to the Executive Committee in a timely manner.

For her outstanding services to ICA Dr. Shingareva is awarded an Honorary Fellowship of ICA.

Category: General News

Centenary of the birth of Konstantin Alexeevich Salishchev (1905–1988)

salischevOn November 20, 2005 will be the centenary jubilee of Konstantin A. Salishchev – the well-known Russian cartographer, who did a lot for the development of cartographic science and the International Cartographic Association (ICA).

From 1956 till 1972 he chaired the Commission for National and Regional Atlases of the International Geographical Union; in London/Edinburgh (1984) he was elected Vice-President of ICA, and in Delhi (1968) President for the next 4-year period.

The activities of Prof. Salishchev were focused on geography and cartography. When young, he actively participated in expeditions to North-East Asia under the leadership of S. Obruchev. As a result of this work which was carried out from the end of the 1920′s till the middle of the 1930′s, detailed maps of the Anadyr, Kolyma and Indigirka river basins and a considerable part of Chukotka were produced. The discovery and mapping of the Chersky mountain-range and of the ‘pole of cold’ near Oimyakon were the most important results of the research during that period. The world community got acquainted with these studies through Salischev’s publications of 1933–35 in Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen and in the Geographical Review.

Presentation of Mannerfelt Medal to Professor Salichtchev, Moscow 1981. From right to left, Salichtchev, Komkov, Ormeling and Hedbom

Presentation of Mannerfelt Medal to Professor Salichtchev, Moscow 1981. From right to left, Salichtchev, Komkov, Ormeling and Hedbom

The compilation of the Great Soviet Atlas of the World was the next stage of his work (1936–38). Since then he was deeply interested in atlas theme for all his life. He chaired the editorial board of the Atlas on the History of Geographic Discoveries and Investigations (1959) and was a member of editorial boards of the Sea Atlas (1950–53), Physical-Geographical Atlas of the World (1964) and Atlas of Oceans (1974–80).

Prof. Salishchev was the author of many articles dealing with atlas mapping. Among the most fundamental results of activities of the IGU National and Regional Atlases Commission chaired by Prof. Salishchev for 16 years were the monographs National atlases: their history, analysis, ways of improvement and standardisation (1960 in Russian and French, 1972 in English) and Regional atlases: trends of development, content of maps of natural conditions and resources (1964 in Russian and English).

Professor and Mrs. Salichtchev aboard Wolga steamer during conference excursion 1976.

Professor and Mrs. Salichtchev aboard Wolga steamer during conference excursion 1976.

Prof. Salishchev initiated the organization of the Laboratory of Integrated Mapping at the Moscow State University Faculty of Geography in 1964. A number of scientific and reference atlases have been created there: of Irkutsk oblast (1962), Kustanay oblast (1964), Northern Kazakhstan (1971), Tumen oblast (volume 1 – 1971, volume 2 – 1976), Altai Territory (volume 1 – 1978, volume 2 – 1980). Recently, the Environmental Atlas of Russia (2002) was compiled there, as well as a series of atlases for secondary; the Atlas of Khanty-Mansi Okrug is being prepared there now for publishing. The Laboratory rendered methodological assistance in the creation of the national atlases of Moldavia, Kirgizia, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Lithuania, and of atlases of the oblasts of Perm, Tomsk, Sakhalin and others.

In 1974 the Laboratory started a new fundamental research on maps for high schools, as Prof. Salishchev came to chair the Scientific and Editorial Council on maps for high schools. The work has resulted in the series of general geographic and thematic maps of the World (1:15 000 000), the USSR (1:4 000 000 and 1:8 000 000), the European part of the USSR (1:2 000 000), foreign countries of Eastern Europe (1:1 000 000), geographic maps of the world, continents and of regions of the USSR as well as the series of educational topographic maps at different scales. By 1996 7 thematic maps of the world, 21 maps of the USSR and its regions, 4 maps of East-European countries, 12 general geographic maps and 6 sets of topographic maps had been created.

Prof. Salishchev always took a keen interest in the theory and methodology of cartography which became the topic of many articles and of a monograph (Salishchev K.A. Ideas and theoretical problems of cartography of the 1980s. – M.: VINITI of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1982, v. 10, 156 p.). He actively upheld his views and ideas in polemics with foreign and Russian cartographers and geographers. In 1967 he became the laureate of the Anuchin Prize for his works on the theory of cartography.

He suggested the idea of using maps to get knowledge about the environment. His first article on this topic was published in 1948, and he discussed this idea for many times (see the bibliography of Salishchev’s works for 1955–1984 in the anniversary collection of papers Geographical Cartography, a look at the future. Ed. by G.I. Rychagov, A.M. Berlyant, V.S. Tikunov. M., MSU, 1986, and other publications till 1988).

He was always ready to respond to new ideas and trends in cartography, such as cartographic modelling or the application of remote sensing methods for thematic mapping, and a great number of his contributions concerned the prospects of automation in cartography – it is on this base that the development of geoinformation science started in Russia.

Textbooks by Prof. Salishchev were translated and published in China, Germany, Poland and Cuba. His textbook Basics of cartology was rewarded with the Golden Medal of N.M. Przhevalsky (1963) and in 1984 it was rewarded with a second Golden Medal. Prof. Salishchev was honorary member of scientific societies in the USSR, Azerbaijan, Serbia, Columbia, Scotland, Poland, USA, Bulgaria, Italy and Hungary and Honorary Doctor of Berlin’s Humboldt University and Warsaw University. He was the laureate of many awards both in Russia and abroad. Prof. Salishchev was one of the first to receive the Carl Mannerfelt Medal, in 1980, which is awarded by the ICA for outstanding achievements in the international collaboration of cartographers. In 1965 he was nominated Honored Scientist of Russia.

He was also awarded the State Prize of the USSR for his contribution to the compilation of the Atlas of Oceans (1980).

We would like to recall our personal contacts with Prof. Salishchev:

Milan Konecny

The first time I met Professor Salishchev in Moscow, MGU was in 1980 at his office. At that time I was going through a 3-month stage in the Geographical faculty, dividing my interests between anthropogenic geomorphology and cartography. I used many mathematical-cartographic approaches started by prof. Salishchev and further developed by his successors. At the time of our meeting, Prof. Salishchev was a pleasant and attentive host, but in matters of cartography he was very convinced of his own truth. His ideas were based on the “Theory of reflection” but at the same time he looked also into philosophical sources from all parts of the former USSR and abroad.

He had an excellent cartographical overview of domestic, European and World development and he was a very temperamental disputant.

As a former president of ICA, he had a very good reputation in both parts of the world divided by the iron curtain. He was also a strong symbol of cartography in the former Central and Eastern Europe.

Very interesting were Prof. Salishchev’s comments and ideas on the coming “scientific-technological revolution”. His school was prepared for the new technological situation by developing the idea of mathematical-cartographical modelling, the role of satellite images in cartography, discussions about the role of the map image as a resource for data and information for geographical research as well as research in other scientific disciplines. In personal talks he welcomed new technologies and expected them to bring new and progressive development of cartography, but at the same time he stressed that cartography had to take care about the content and quality of data and information. He did not expect any crises of cartography at the end of 80s and 90s when our science lost its previous strong positions and did not deal well with new technologies like GIS, remote sensing, GPS and others. Today the importance of cartography is growing up again.

Globally operating companies need cartographical methodology and knowledge for the time when ambient technologies are coming, big GIS vendors again invest millions of dollars into the development of cartographical tools. The question how to use cartography effectively for cartographic visualisation and representation of geographic data, information and knowledge on the basis of so called SDIs is the topic of the day on most of the continents. And also here Prof. Salishchev is with us. His ideas to create maps and atlases according to unified legends, at the same scales, his thoughts about necessary creation of metadata were in fact ideas about “SDIs” in cartography. In his time the World was different and our societies and various communities were not sufficiently prepared. Therefore, some of his ideas are realized today simultaneously with the development of Information/Knowledge-Based Societies and as well as in different political, economical and social conditions compared to Salishchev’s times. I am certain that if he was still with us nowadays, he would have been preparing a representative presentations of Russian cartography for the coming ICC’s in A Coruna (2005) and Moscow (2007). Prof. K.A. Salishchev was one of the best cartographers in the world and contributed a lot to development of the world cartography.

Ferjan Ormeling

The first time I participated in a conversation with Prof Salishchev was when he visited our home in 1967, during the Amsterdam ICA conference. I still remember that he was rather skeptical at the way my father had acquired this house, and did not believe my father’s claims that he had earned it himself; university professors were well-paid at the time in the Netherlands. The second time was in 1976, during the Moscow ICA conference. In 1974 I had published a paper on 50 years of Soviet Cartography (1917–1974), that had been translated in The American Cartographer, and that claimed, as an aside, that there were conscious distortions on those topographical maps and town plans of the USSR, that were available to foreigners. This publication was rather awkward for my father who at the time was Secretary-General of the ICA, and who hastened to tell Salishchev (who was organizing the next ICA conference in Moscow) that it was not he who had written the article (we have the same initials). Salishchev had not forgotten this and when he saw me next in Moscow he told me he found my contribution rather unscholarly. But this did not detract from my admiration for him: for me he was a man of grand ideas, and the best one was his on national atlases.

You see, Salishchev worked for a long time on the unification and standardization of national atlases. He initiated studies on the scales and on the legends of the various map themes these atlases contained: economic maps, traffic and transportation maps, manufacturing maps, etc. And the grand idea behind all this was, that if all these aspects (scales and map legends and ways of presentation) of national atlases would be standardized, then we would – by putting these atlases side by side – have one big thematic atlas of the world.

It is only now that, through the new digital possibilities we have at our disposal that we are finally able to make this dream of Salishchev come true, but that does not diminish his endeavours: as a visionary he showed us the directions where to go!

Vladimir Tikunov

The first time I saw Prof. Salishchev in 1966, when I became a student of Geodesy and Cartography Department he was the head of. And I was fortunate enough to maintain good contacts with him till his death in 1988. His wide knowledge and, above all, fantastic dedication to work always produced a tremendous impression. He acquired information for his articles and textbooks grain by grain working without holidays and vacations, usually from 4 or 5 in the morning – “when everyday concerns do not pull you away”, as he often explained.

However it might be well to point out that he took an interest in many other aspects of life. He was, among other things, an expert in painting and chinaware and had a good collection of it. Famous galleries, such as Tretyakov, for example, and large exhibition halls of this country asked him from time to time to exhibit some of his works. He collected post stamps too, with map images, of course. When I was in London in 1977–78 for training at the Experimental Cartographic Unit of the Royal College of Arts (the idea was initiated by Prof. Salishchev and I’m still grateful to him for it) he personally asked me to bring him some particular post stamps he was interested in. He also was an expert in Georgian wines and dishes. Of course he had a large collection of maps and atlases and was very proud of it. Although Prof. Salishchev looked cool and restrained, he could talk with colleagues and even students for hours. And his eyes shone when he managed to have a look at old maps which were another passion of him. During his visits abroad, which unfortunately never took very long, he spent a lot of time in libraries and book depositories, feeling enjoyment from working with maps which had been inaccessible to him before.

All together we’d like to thank our lucky stars for the chance to have had contacts with Professor Konstantin A. Salishchev.


Milan Konecny, ICA President
Ferjan Konecny, ICA Secretary General
Vladimir Tikunov, ICA Vice-President

Category: General News

Harold Fullard (1915–2001)

Harold Fullard and Roger Anson, Outgoing and Incoming Chairman of the Publications Committee in City dress.

Harold Fullard and Roger Anson, Outgoing and Incoming Chairman of the Publications Committee in City dress.

On February 1 2001 our colleague and friend Harold Fullard suddenly passed away.

He died from a heart attack in his beloved garden in Birkhampsted, Berkshire. Harold was born on 23 April 1915 in St. Petersburg, Russia. He read geography and anthropology at the University of Manchester and graduated in 1936. Equipped with this luggage he entered into the service of Publishers George Philip & Son, London, where he specialised in atlas cartography.

The war years inevitably interrupted this activity. Serving in the Royal Engineers Survey he was engaged in the mapping of Normandy and the Low Countries. In 1944 he was posted to India, then Ceylon and Singapore. He returned to Philip in 1946, where he climbed the ladder from geographical assistant to Director and Cartographic Editor in Chief. He retired officially in 1980 and continued to serve George Philip as consultant cartographer. During his career he prepared, edited and supervised the production of over 130 atlases, predominantly educational, covering many countries and most of them excelling in clarity and legibility. They were used by millions of people in schools, libraries and offices all over the world. In doing so, he became a man of international repute, whether modest Harold liked it or not!

Throughout his busy career he still made time for contributions to cartography in general. He was a founder member of the British Cartographic Society, was treasurer and council member from 1963–68,Vice-President in 1969, and President in 1970.

In addition, he was actively involved in the International Cartographic Association (ICA) from its foundation in the 1950’s. It will be obvious that his experience in international cartography proved to be extremely valuable for the consolidation and growth of the Association. He missed no Conference and by his lectures and writings he contributed to its prestige. For years he served as chairman of the ICA Publications Committee that he moulded into shape by revising its guidelines. During his chairmanship no less than 10 books, written by cartographers of diverging backgrounds and most of them drastically edited by Fullard, were added to the list of ICA Publications. The Seventh General Assembly of the Association, held in Perth, Australia in 1984, presented him with the Honorary Fellowship. On the national level the Royal Society presented him with the Murchison Award for his contribution to educational cartography.

Finally, in recognition of his many merits he was awarded an OBE in the 1980’s,after his retirement. We express our gratitude for all that Harold stood for and brought about and passed on to others. Finally we wish his dear wife Nancy, her two sons and daughter courage and strength to bear and overcome their loss.

F. J. Ormeling Snr.

Further reading: Honorary Fellowship for Harold Fullard

Category: General News