E. Pugliesi

Post-Grad Programme, Cartography Departament, Presidente Prudente, Brazil


This research evaluates the influence of different designs of a car navigation system, based on visual demand, subjective preference and navigational error, taking into account the drivers characteristics, complexity information and maneuvers type. Static arrows and dynamic maps were used for strategies of maneuvers, both presented visually and preceded by sound of two beeps. Figure-ground segregation, dynamic visual and audio-dynamic variables were used in cartographic design. In this framework, maneuvers were classified according with complexity levels: simple maneuver, complex maneuver and complex roundabouts. Dynamic maps designs were presented in three complexity levels: low (only route), medium (route and static arrow or blinking arrow) and high (route, simplified landmark with or without a static arrow) – all of them in an egocentric reference frame with roads features and a centered pictorial car symbol. Twenty eight drivers (14 male and 14 female) participated in this simulated driving experiment for a small town unknown by them. They read static arrows and dynamic maps in a console while driving a route. Data collected for visual demand were analyzed using ANOVA inferential statistics. Results indicates that complexity levels of the design had a significant influence on visual demand and consequently on maximum and total duration and number of glances for the display. Some effects of gender, experience with maps and driving factors are found. The majority of drivers prefers complex navigation system because help them in tasks of mental images representation, before and after maneuvers. Furthermore, different complexity levels of maneuvers have influence on the preferences of the design. In despite of general preferences for dynamic maps, in the case of simple navigation task, arrows were chosen due to simplicity of the design. The effectiveness of the different designs was analyzed and recommendations are made for improve the cartographic communication.