M. Tchindjang1, S.A. Abossolo1, A. Bopda2, F.V. Menga1, Z. Fogwe Nji3

1 - The University of Yaounde I, Department of Geography, Yaounde, Cameroon

2 - Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation, National Institute of Cartography, Departement of Geographical Rsearch, Yaounde, Cameroon

3 - The University of Douala, Department of Geography, Douala, Cameroon


Cameroon border is a product of colonial system conceived in Berlin Conference of 1884. Before this, colonial powers justified it imperialism by juridical or moral principles. But Cameroon was more attractive due to its central position at the heart of Africa continent.

Cameroon coast began to be recognized in the 15th century during the slave trade that attracted Portuguese, Dutch and English for its commercial and geostrategic position. German came later and penetrated the whole country northwards to Lake Chad and eastwards to Sangha river border.

 Since the Berlin Conference held on 15th November 1884 that consecrated the splitting of Africa continent, Cameron became a nation whose border due to hard negotiation and interest between colonial powers changed many times. This mapping illustrated the main steps of fluctuation of Cameroon frontiers. The cartography shows that Cameroon is the main nation of Central Africa that have being splitting many times. This is explained by the necessity for colonial masters to normalize and limit or avoid conflicts amongst them in order to ensure the future. Thus we are far from this idea because till today, there are many dispute borders and conflicts within Africa.

Our paper shall carry the splitting in 19th and 20th Century, aiming at helping us to take in account the colonial stability and to realise the deep German penetration in Cameroon hinterland.  Mapping and GIS allowed us to retrace definitely the major features of that historical period.