G.K. Polikarpova, L.A. Shilkina

PKO Cartography



In 2000-2005 Production Association (PKO) Cartography by instructions of the Federal Agency of Geodesy and Cartography prepared for publication series of maps on the nature and natural resources of Russia, social and economic maps of Russia and series of complex social and economic maps of Russian regions for general educational establishments.

Series of maps have been compiled in view of maps purpose as teaching aid for collective using and requirements shown to them, namely: coordination with the content of textbooks and curriculum on geography for 8-9 grades; coordination with similar maps in school atlases for 8-9 grades; presentation and good readership from distance; authentic display of objects and phenomena condition, and also conformity to modern scientific conceptions on mapped objects and the phenomena.

The scale of 1:5 000 000 for maps of Russia, and the scales of 1:1 500 000, 1:2 500 000, 1:5 000 000 for maps of Russia regions have been chosen.

Symbols designed for map series meet following requirements: expressiveness, simplicity of form, large sizes, uniformity at designation of the same objects within the limits of one map series, and also uniform marginal representation.

A feature of the above-named maps compilation consists in creation of a uniform geographical basis for Russia maps series of that has allowed to accelerate process of thematic maps compiling and has provided the coordination of geographical objects representation for school maps series. Compilation of the geographical basis was made in view of the maps thematic content of for which it was developed. So, for example, the contour lines, isobaths and a soil-vegetative cover were given on a typical basis for maps of the nature and natural resources.

Objects of the nature, the natural phenomena, the population and economy of Russia and its regions were the thematic content of maps.

Features of generalization on maps of different content were defined by character of the phenomena and objects distribution in space, by mechanism of their development, communications of the represented phenomena with objects.

The computer technology with application of programs FH and Neva for print of maps in 4-6 colours has been tested for the first time at maps compilation and preparation.

The order of checkup and approval of school maps have the specificity: reviewing of the technical project on creation of a map in the beginning of work and of a proofrun copy (before colour separation) by authors of textbooks, teachers of educational institutions, research assistants of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institutes; and consideration by the Federal Advisory Council of the Education and Science Ministry of the Russian Federation.

The list maps of Russia, in scale of 1:5 000 000: Geological map; Water resources; Natural zones and biological resources; Vegetation; Land resources; Environmental problems; the Federal division; People; Population density; Agriculture; Light and food industry; Wood, pulp and paper industry; Fuel industry; Electric power industry; Chemical industry; Ferrous and non-ferrous industry; Transport. Regional maps of the Russian Federation, Complex social and economic maps: Scale of 1:1 500 000 for the Central Russia (2 sheets); the Volga region; Northwest of Russia; the European South of Russia; the Ural Mountains; scale 1:2 500 000 the European North of Russia; Western Siberia; Eastern Siberia (2 sheets); scale 1:5 000 000 the Far East.

School wall maps of Russia and its regions are created on one or two printers sheets in rectangular frameworks with the maximal format 90,0 111,0 cm on outline.

School wall maps are created according to requirements of Cartographical Production. Sheet Maps, published by Roskartographya in 2003. Selection of fonts and symbols sizes was made in view of hygienic requirements to teaching aids.