J. Xiao, H. Liu

Institute of Surveying and Mapping, Information Engineering University


Digitalization of paper map is one of methods for getting digital map (or geographic information or spatial data), but there are a lot of differences about map information between paper map and digital map. Firstly, this presentation introduces the reasons for bringing such differences in the process of digitalization. Geographic information (or digital map) produced by digitalization is a very important kind of data source for GIS, and in GIS application digital map organized in disk or memory must be symbolized into electronic analogue map on computer screen. In order to reach excellent visualization effect, the map information difference between analogue map and digital map should be retrieved in the process of symbolization.

Secondly, this paper discusses the requirements of symbol design principles in traditional paper mapmaking and new changes and advantages in electronic devices environment. In this context, map symbolization is developing from static state to dynamic interaction.

Thirdly, this dissertation introduces a method using cartographic expert knowledge and experience to control the process of dynamic map symbolization. In the third part, the author thinks it should formalize the fuzzy and ambiguous expert knowledge and build expert knowledge repository.

In the fourth part of this paper, by an example it illustrates how to establish cartographic expert knowledge repository and how the formalized expert knowledge to control the geographic features symbolization.

In the fifth part, it elaborates how the formalized cartographic expert knowledge to control the annotations symbolization on map.