V.S. Tikunov, T.S. Nokelaynen, I.N. Rubanov

M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University


Spatial data infrastructure (SDI) may form a reliable basis of integrated digital territory models (IDTM). It is necessary for elaboration of sustainable development models for these territories. First of all, these are the digital model of territory considered as virtual reality model, supplemented with a set of remote sensing data and with a number of thematic layers, socio-demographic, economic, ecologic etc.

It is convenient to form integrated digital models on the basis of atlas information or directly within the atlas information systems (AIS). Such systems are usually provided with well-developed modelling functions, they are capable of integrating expert systems and could be designed as full-scale multimedia products. AIS allow integration of diverse information resources, modelling, visualisation and analysis, as well as the elaboration of various scenarios and possible development alternatives for such complex systems as those of nature-society-economy.

The design of an atlas information system for environmentally sustainable development is briefly as follows. Upper block of the hierarchically composed system describes the position and role of Russia in the solution of global issues. World maps included in the block represent the reserves of the main natural resources and the balance of their production and consumption; population growth; impact of Russian and other nations on the global environmental situation. Anamorphosises, charts, tables and explanatory texts should stress the role of Russia for the solution of the most urgent global issues. It would be also useful to compare regions of Russia and foreign countries within a single data bank. The work has been already done to apply multidimensional ranking using the sets of comparable parameters. According to several integral indicators the regions of Russia could be compared to quite different countries, from Austria (the city of Moscow) to Nicaragua (Republic of Tuva).

The middle block (country level) would be devoted to the anthropogenic pressure and environment sustainability of Russia, also the sustainable economic and socio-demographic development of Russia. A number of original topics would supplement the general description of all elements in the Nature-Economy-Population system with emphasis to the current changes (trends). The final topics of the block will be devoted to evaluation of the environment resistance to the anthropogenic pressure, sustainability, to economic development and socio-demographic sustainability respectively, as well as some other integrating assessments.

An important block will describe models of transfer to sustainable development for the regions of Russia. Its most important purpose also is characteristic of the environmental, economic and social components of sustainable development. The work will soon begin on a hypermedia branch of the system for the Bailkal Lake area, Irkutskaya oblast and the city of Irkutsk. The regions will be analyzed both as an element of larger territorial unit, i.e. the country, and self-sufficient integrity capable of development on the basis of internal resources. The composed maps would make it possible to propose the strategy of development and innovative activities for the whole region and its particular areas. The typology of all regions of Russia has already been done and typical representatives of different groups, such as industrial, agrarian, poorly developed, etc., have been identified.

The information system allows evaluation of different of international and regional projects. In the case of Altai region, for example, man would analyze alternative development strategies if proposed Shanghai-Rotterdam railway cross its territory. At present this Trans-Eurasian transportation corridor is planned along the ancient Great Silk Route bypassing the territory of Russia. Chinese railroads would be connected through Kazakhstan (the Urumchi-Alma Ata railway) Integral analysis of economic, environmental, social and political aspects of this project would contribute to the adequate evaluation of all pro and contras for the passage of the railway across the territory of Russia.

Sustainable development studies require the analysis of almost all thematic aspects which should be realized in the atlas information system. Several thematic animations were developed which permit retrospective analysis: Changes of arable and forest lands within the regions of Russia for recent three centuryies, Development of the city network in Russia, Changes in population density in Russia during 1678 to 2011, Development of metallurgy in Russia during the 18th to 20th centuries and Development of railway network (expansion and electrification) in 19th and 20th centuries. The latter two being the first stage in the elaboration of a complex animation Development of industry and transport in Russia. Population of Russia, Changes of administrative and territorial boundaries in Russia and some other animations are also in progress. The last one allows to see the boundaries of gubernias in the 19th century, view the hierarchy of administrative units (gubernia, uezd, volost), follow the changes of boundaries during the Soviet era and in the last years identify stable boundaries and those frequently resited, obtain the encyclopedic information on a region, gain biographic data of a Governor, etc.

The work has begun that would allow to compile their (? ?) own cartographic products using the basic map and the data acquired through the Internet. The means of modeling would be developed, mainly for the elaboration of different scenarios of transition to the sustainable development for particular regions of the country. Final stage of the project would be the intellectualization of the whole system which allows produce the comprehensive system of decision-making support.

Within the project the above-mentioned blocks were illustrated by a number of examples providing for the rough description of the situation and the development of recommendations on sustainable development of some regions of the country.